Linux is an operating system similar to UNIX, and is an independent implementation of the POSIX operating system, with the SYSV and BSD extensions of the UNIX operating system, which mainly runs on the Intel 80386DX family (read: microprocessor) machine, or newer. The next development, Linux can run on several other machines such as Sun Sparc, Mac, Power PC, DEC Alpha, and PPC mk86.

Linux used to be a hobby project undertaken by Linus Torvalds. Dlam worked on his hobby project, Linus Torvalds got inspiration from Minix, a small UNIX system developed by Andy Tenenbaum. Linux version 00.1 was carried out around August 1991. On October 5, 1991 Linus announced the official version of Linux, which is 00.2. This version can only run Bash (GNU Bourne Again Shell) and gcc (GNU C Compiler).

Now Linux is a complete UNIX system, can be used for networking (networking), software development, even for everyday needs. Linux is an alternative operating system that is much cheaper compared to commercial operating systems.

Although Linux is not an official UNIX system, but Linux has a basic heritage, culture, architecture and experience of the UNIX operating system, an operating system that has been running for more than 28 years. Since the advent of the Linux source code (in 1991) the Linux kernel has been researched and perfected by tens of thousands of programmers around the world. Most GNU and X Window System programs have existed longer than Linux, and have been examined more thoroughly.

The Linux Operating System includes true-multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand-loading, proper memory management, and multiuser. Linux, like UNIX, supports many softwares ranging from TEX, X Window, GNU C / C ++ to TCP / IP. Linux has several advantages equivalent to UNIX, including:
  1. Multi Threads
  2. Multi User
  3. Multi Processing
  4. Good memory management
  5. Securities
  6. The file system is stable
  7. Availability of source code
  8. Available in livecd version
  9. There are several Linux distributions, some of which will be explained as follows.

1. Ubuntu Linux

Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊntuː/ (About this soundlisten) uu-BUUN-too) is a free and open-source Linux distribution based on Debian. Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: Desktop, Server, and Core for the internet of things devices and robots. All the editions can run on the computer alone, or in a virtual machine. Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack.
Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years. The latest release is 19.10 ("Eoan Ermine"), and the most recent long-term support release is 18.04 LTS ("Bionic Beaver"), which is supported until 2023 under public support and until 2028 as a paid option.

Ubuntu is developed by Canonical, and a community of other developers, under a meritocratic governance model. Canonical provides security updates and support for each Ubuntu release, starting from the release date and until the release reaches its designated end-of-life (EOL) date. Canonical generates revenue through the sale of premium services related to Ubuntu.

Ubuntu is named after the African Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which Canonical translates as "humanity to others" or "I am what I am because of who we all are".

2. Debian Linux

Debian (/ˈdɛbiən/), also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a Linux distribution composed of free and open-source software, developed by the community-supported Debian Project, which was established by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993. The first version, Debian 0.01, was released on September 15, 1993, and the first stable version, 1.1, was released on June 17, 1996. The Debian Stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and servers, and is the basis for many other distributions.
Debian is one of the oldest operating systems based on the Linux kernel. The project is coordinated over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, and the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, and the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze.

Since its founding, Debian has been developed openly and distributed freely according to the principles of the GNU Project. Because of this, the Free Software Foundation sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995. When the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit organization Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.

3. Kali Linux

Kali Linux has over 600[6] preinstalled penetration-testing programs, including Armitage (a graphical cyber attack management tool), Nmap (a port scanner), Wireshark (a packet analyzer), John the Ripper password cracker, Aircrack-ng (a software suite for penetration-testing wireless LANs), Burp suite and OWASP ZAP web application security scanners.

It was developed by Mati Aharoni and Devon Kearns of Offensive Security through the rewrite of BackTrack, their previous information security testing Linux distribution based on Knoppix, originally it was designed with a focus on kernel auditing, from which it got its name Kernel Auditing LInux. The name is sometimes incorrectly assumed to come from Kali the Hindu goddess, or the Hindu demon. The third core developer, Raphaël Hertzog, joined them as a Debian expert.
Kali Linux is based on the Debian Testing branch. Most packages Kali uses are imported from the Debian repositories. The Kali Linux project began quietly in 2012, when Offensive Security decided that they wanted to replace their venerable BackTrack Linux project, which was manually maintained, with something that could become a genuine Debian derivative, complete with all of the required infrastructure and improved packaging techniques. The decision was made to build Kali on top of the Debian distribution because it is well known for its quality, stability, and wide selection of available software.

The first version (1.0) was released one year later, in March 2013, and was based on Debian 7 “Wheezy”, Debian’s stable distribution at the time. In that first year of development, they packaged hundreds of pen-testing-related applications and built the infrastructure. Even though the number of applications is significant, the application list has been meticulously curated, dropping applications that no longer worked or that duplicated features already available in better programs.

During the two years following version 1.0, Kali released many incremental updates, expanding the range of available applications and improving hardware support, thanks to newer kernel releases. With some investment in continuous integration, they ensured that all important packages were kept in an installable state and that customized live images (a hallmark of the distribution) could always be created.

Kali Linux popularity grew when it was featured in multiple episodes of the TV series Mr. Robot. Tools highlighted in the show and provided by Kali Linux include Bluesniff, Bluetooth Scanner (btscanner), John the Ripper, Metasploit Framework, nmap, Shellshock, and Wget.

4. Linux Mint

Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Ubuntu or Debian that strives to be a 'modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use'. Linux Mint provides full out-of-the-box multimedia support by including some proprietary software, such as multimedia codecs, and comes bundled with a variety of free and open-source applications.

The project was created by Clément Lefèbvre and is being actively developed by the Linux Mint Team and community. Development of Linux Mint began in 2006 with a beta release of Linux Mint 1.0, code-named 'Ada', based on Kubuntu. Following its release, Linux Mint 2.0 'Barbara' was the first version to use Ubuntu as its codebase. Linux Mint had few users from these early versions until the release of Linux Mint 3.0, 'Cassandra'.
Linux Mint 2.0 was based on Ubuntu 6.10, using its package repositories and using it as a codebase. From there, Linux Mint followed its own codebase, building each release from its previous one, but continued to use the package repositories from the latest Ubuntu release. This resulted in making the base between the two systems almost identical, guaranteeing full compatibility between the two distributions rather than having Mint become a fork.[citation needed]

In 2008, Linux Mint adopted the same release cycle as Ubuntu and dropped its minor version number before releasing version 5 'Elyssa'. The same year, in an effort to increase the compatibility between the two systems, Linux Mint decided to abandon its code-base and changed the way it built its releases. Starting with Linux Mint 6 'Felicia', each release was now completely based on the latest Ubuntu release, built directly from it, and timed for approximately one month after the corresponding Ubuntu release, usually in May or November.[citation needed]

In 2010, Linux Mint released Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE). Unlike the other Ubuntu-based editions (Ubuntu Mint), LMDE was originally a rolling release based directly on Debian and was not tied to Ubuntu packages or its release schedule.[11] It was announced on May 27, 2015 that the Linux Mint team would no longer support the original rolling release version of LMDE after January 1, 2016.[13] LMDE 2 'Betsy', the current release of LMDE, is a long term support release based on Debian Jessie. When LMDE 2 was released it was announced that all LMDE users would be automatically upgraded to new versions of MintTools software and new Desktop Environments before they were released into the main edition of Linux Mint.

On February 20, 2016, the Linux Mint website was breached by unknown hackers, who briefly replaced download links for a version of Linux Mint with a modified version that contained malware. The hackers also breached the database of the website's user forum. Linux Mint immediately took its server offline to fix the issue and subsequently implemented enhanced security configurations for their website and forum.

5. Arch Linux

Arch Linux defines simplicity as without unnecessary additions or modifications. It ships software as released by the original developers (upstream) with minimal distribution-specific (downstream) changes: patches not accepted by upstream are avoided, and Arch's downstream patches consist almost entirely of backported bug fixes that are obsoleted by the project's next release.

In a similar fashion, Arch ships the configuration files provided by upstream with changes limited to distribution-specific issues like adjusting the system file paths. It does not add automation features such as enabling a service simply because the package was installed. Packages are only split when compelling advantages exist, such as to save disk space in particularly bad cases of waste. GUI configuration utilities are not officially provided, encouraging users to perform most system configuration from the shell and a text editor.
Arch Linux strives to maintain the latest stable release versions of its software as long as systemic package breakage can be reasonably avoided. It is based on a rolling-release system, which allows a one-time installation with continuous upgrades.

Arch incorporates many of the newer features available to GNU/Linux users, including the systemd init system, modern file systems, LVM2, software RAID, udev support and initcpio (with mkinitcpio), as well as the latest available kernels.

Arch is a pragmatic distribution rather than an ideological one. The principles here are only useful guidelines. Ultimately, design decisions are made on a case-by-case basis through developer consensus. Evidence-based technical analysis and debate are what matter, not politics or popular opinion.

The large number of packages and build scripts in the various Arch Linux repositories offer free and open source software for those who prefer it, as well as proprietary software packages for those who embrace functionality over ideology.

User centrality
Whereas many GNU/Linux distributions attempt to be more user-friendly, Arch Linux has always been, and shall always remain user-centric. The distribution is intended to fill the needs of those contributing to it, rather than trying to appeal to as many users as possible. It is targeted at the proficient GNU/Linux user, or anyone with a do-it-yourself attitude who is willing to read the documentation, and solve their own problems.

All users are encouraged to participate and contribute to the distribution. Reporting and helping fix bugs is highly valued and patches improving packages or the core projects are very appreciated: Arch's developers are volunteers and active contributors will often find themselves becoming part of that team. Archers can freely contribute packages to the Arch User Repository, improve the ArchWiki documentation, provide technical assistance to others or just exchange opinions in the forums, mailing lists, or IRC channels. Arch Linux is the operating system of choice for many people around the globe, and there exist several international communities that offer help and provide documentation in many different languages.

Arch Linux is a general-purpose distribution. Upon installation, only a command-line environment is provided: rather than tearing out unneeded and unwanted packages, the user is offered the ability to build a custom system by choosing among thousands of high-quality packages provided in the official repositories for the x86-64 architecture.

Arch is backed by pacman, a lightweight, simple and fast package manager that allows to upgrade the entire system with one command. Arch also provides the Arch Build System, a ports-like system to make it easy to build and install packages from source, which can also be synchronized with one command. In addition, the Arch User Repository contains many thousands more of community-contributed PKGBUILD scripts for compiling installable packages from source using the makepkg application. It is also possible for users to build and maintain their own custom repositories with ease.

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